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Brief introduction of taichichuan

来源: 添加时间:2013-04-22 01:13:34

 

 

【中华武术】太极拳 Tai Ji Quan
 
 
    太极拳,中国拳术之一,早期曾称为“长拳”、“棉拳”、“十三势”、“软手”。至清朝乾隆年间(公元1736~1796年),山西人王宗岳著《太极拳论》,才确定了太极拳的名称。“太极”一词源出《周易·系词》,含有至高、至极、绝对、唯一的意思。

    关于太极拳的起源,众说纷纭,大致有唐朝(公元618~907年)许宣平、宋朝(公元960~1278年)张三峰、明朝(公元1368~1644年)张三丰、清朝(公元1644~1911年)陈王廷和王宗岳等几种不同的说法。但现在多数拳家亦以现传各式太极拳俊源出陈式太极拳之说为本。

    太极拳综合吸收了明代名家拳法,特别是戚继光的三十二式长拳,并结合了古代导引、吐纳气功之术和中医经络学说,以及古代阴阳五行学说,以道教、太极八卦等理论为太极拳的哲学基础,综合而成。

    太极拳以“棚、捋、挤、按、瘛 、肘、靠、进、退、顾、盼、定”等为基本方法。动作徐缓舒畅,要求练拳时正腰、收颚、直背、垂间,有飘然腾云之意境。清代拳师称“拳如大海,滔滔而不绝”。同时,太极拳还很重视练气,所谓“气”,就是修炼人体自身的精神力,这是太极拳作为内家功夫的特点之一。

    目前,太极拳有陈式、杨式、孙式、吴式、武式五种流派。明末清初,河南温县陈家沟的老拳师陈王庭初创太极拳,世代相传。河北永年人杨露禅从学于陈家沟陈长兴,并与其子杨健侯、其孙杨澄甫等人在陈式太极拳的基础上,创编发展了“杨式太极拳”。清末河北永年人武禹襄在杨露禅从陈家沟返乡后,深爱其术,从学杨于陈式老架太极拳,后又从陈清平学赵堡架,经过修改,创造了“武式太极拳”。河北完县人孙禄堂,从师李魁垣学形意拳,继而学于李魁垣的师傅郭云深,又从师于程廷华学八卦掌。后又从师郝为真学太极拳,之后参合八卦、形意、太极三家拳术的精义,融合一体而创“孙式太极拳”。
 
   Tai Ji Quan
 
 
Tai Ji Quan is a major division of Chinese martial art. Tai Ji Quan means "supreme ultimate fist". Tai means "Supreme", Ji means "Ultimate", and Quan means "Fist".

There have been different sayings about the origin of Tai Ji Quan. The traditional legend goes that the wise man Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty (960-1279) created Tai Ji Quan after he had witnessed a fight between a sparrow and a snake; while most people agreed that the modern Tai Ji Quan originated from Chen style Tai Ji Quan, which first appeared during the 19th century in the Daoguang Reign of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
 
Tai Ji Quan has its philosophical roots in Taoism and is considered as an internal martial art, utilizing the internal energy, or Qi, and following the simple principle of "subduing the vigorous by the soft". Taoism is the oldest philosophy of China which is represented by the famous symbol of the Yin and Yang which expresses the continuous flow of Qi in a circular motion that generates two opposite forces, plus and minus, which interact and balance with each others to bring existence to the physical and metaphysical world.
 
The most famous forms of Tai Ji Quan practiced today are the Chen, Yang, Wu, Wu and Sun styles. All the five styles can be traced back to Chen style Tai Ji Quan. According to historical records, Tai Ji Quan was founded by Chen Wangting (1597-1664), who lived in Chen Village, in today's Henan Province in China. Based on the Chen style and created by Yang Luchan, a Hebei native of the Qing Dynasty, the Yang style is now the most popular style worldwide. The Woo Style is based on the Chen and Yang styles and created by Woo Yuxing.
 
The Sun style is derived from Chen and Woo styles and created by Sun Lutang. The Sun style is a combination of the more famous internal Chinese martial art forms of Ba Gua, Xing Yi and Tai Ji. The Wu style is based on Chen and Yang styles, and it was created by Wu Jianquan.
 
Nowadays, when most people talk about Tai Ji Quan, they are usually referring to the Yang style, which has already spread throughout the world and is practiced by millions of people.

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